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J Korean Soc Ther Radiol Oncol > Volume 23(4); 2005 > Article
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology 2005;23(4): 236-242.
Evaluation of Electron Boost Fields based on Surgical Clips and Operative Scars in Definitive Breast Irradiation
Rena Lee, Eunah Chung, Jihye Lee, Hyunsuk Suh
Department of Radiation Oncology, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul, Korea. renalee@ewha.ac.kr
To evaluate the role of surgical clips and scars in determining electron boost field for early stage breast cancer undergoing conserving surgery and postoperative radiotherapy and to provide an optimal method in drawing the boost field.
Twenty patients who had 4~7 surgical clips in the excision cavity were selected for this study. The depth informations were obtained to determine electron energy by measuring the distance from the skin to chest wall (SCD) and to the clip implanted in the most posterior area of tumor bed. Three different electron fields were outlined on a simulation film. The radiological tumor bed was determined by connecting all the clips implanted during surgery. Clinical field (CF) was drawn by adding 3 cm margin around surgical scar. Surgical field (SF) was drawn by adding 2 cm margin around surgical clips and an ideal field (IF) was outlined by adding 2 cm margin around both scar and clips. These fields were digitized into our planning system to measure the area of each separate field. The areas of the three different electron boost fields were compared. Finally, surgical clips were contoured on axial CT images and dose volume histogram was plotted to investigate 3-dimensional coverage of the clips.
The average depth difference between SCD and the maximal clip location was 0.7+/-0.56 cm. Greater difference of 5 mm or more was seen in 12 patients. The average shift between the borders of scar and clips were 1.7, 1.2, 1.2, and 0.9 cm in superior, inferior, medial, and lateral directions, respectively. The area of the CF was larger than SF and IF in 6/20 patients. In 15/20 patients, the area difference between SF and IF was less than 5%. One to three clips were seen outside the CF in 15/20 patients. In addition, dosimetrically inadequate coverage of clips (less than 80% of prescribed dose) were observed in 17/20 patients when CF was used as the boost field.
The electron field determined from clinical scar underestimates the tumor bed in superior-inferior direction significantly and thereby underdosing the tissue at risk. The electron field obtained from surgical clips alone dose not cover the entire scar properly. As a consequence, our technique, which combines the surgical clips and clinical scars in determining electron boost field, was proved to be effective in minimizing the geographical miss as well as normal tissue complications.
Key Words: Electron boost field, Surgical clips, Tumor bed, Breast cancer
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