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J Korean Soc Ther Radiol Oncol > Volume 22(3); 2004 > Article
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology 2004;22(3): 165-176.
Analysis of the Causes of Subfrontal Recurrence in Medulloblastoma and Its Salvage Treatment
Jae Ho Cho, Woong Sub Koom, Chang Geol Lee, Kyoung Ju Kim, Su Jung Shim, Jino Bak, Kyoungkeun Jeong, Tae Gon Kim, Dong Seok Kim, Joong Uhn Choi, Chang Ok Suh
1Departments of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. cosuh317@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr
2Departments of Neurosurgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
3Yonsei Cancer Center Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Firstly, to analyze factors in terms of radiation treatment that might potentially cause subfrontal relapse in two patients who had been treated by craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for medulloblastoma. Secondly, to explore an effective salvage treatment for these relapses.
Two patients who had high-risk disease (T3bM1, T3bM3) were treated with combined chemoradiotherapy. CT-simulation based radiation-treatment planning (RTP) was performed. One patient who experienced relapse at 16 months after CSI was treated with salvage surgery followed by a 30.6 Gy IMRT (intensity modulated radiotherapy). The other patient whose tumor relapsed at 12 months after CSI was treated by surgery alone for the recurrence. To investigate factors that might potentially cause subfrontal relapse, we evaluated thoroughly the charts and treatment planning process including portal films, and tried to find out a method to give help for placing blocks appropriately between subfrotal-cribrifrom plate region and both eyes. To salvage subfrontal relapse in a patient, re-irradiation was planned after subtotal tumor removal. We have decided to treat this patient with IMRT because of the proximity of critical normal tissues and large burden of re-irradiation. With seven beam directions, the prescribed mean dose to PTV was 30.6 Gy (1.8 Gy fraction) and the doses to the optic nerves and eyes were limited to 25 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively.
Review of radiotherapy portals clearly indicated that the subfrontal-cribriform plate region was excluded from the therapy beam by eye blocks in both cases, resulting in cold spot within the target volume. When the whole brain was rendered in 3-D after organ drawing in each slice, it was easier to judge appropriateness of the blocks in port film. IMRT planning showed excellent dose distributions (Mean doses to PTV, right and left optic nerves, right and left eyes: 31.1 Gy, 14.7 Gy, 13.9 Gy, 6.9 Gy, and 5.5 Gy, respectively. Maximum dose to PTV: 36 Gy). The patient who received IMRT is still alive with no evidence of recurrence and any neurologic complications for 1 year.
To prevent recurrence of medulloblastoma in subfrontal-cribriform plate region, we need to pay close attention to the placement of eye blocks during the treatment. Once subfrontal recurrence has happened, IMRT may be a good choice for re-irradiation as a salvage treatment to maximize the differences of dose distributions between the normal tissues and target volume.
Key Words: Medulloblastoma, Subfrontal recurrence, Intensity modulated radiotherapy
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