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J Korean Soc Ther Radiol Oncol > Volume 21(4); 2003 > Article
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology 2003;21(4): 306-314.
Regulatory Mechanism of Radiation-induced Cancer Cell Death by the Change of Cell Cycle
Soo Jin Jeong, Min Ho Jeong, Ji Yeon Jang, Wol Soon Jo, Byung Hyouk Nam, Min Za Jeong, Young Jin Lim, Byung Gon Jang, Seon Min Youn, Hyung Sik Lee, Won Joo Hur, Kwang Mo Yang
1Department of Radiation Oncology, Dong-A University Hospital, College of Medicine, Pusan, Korea.
2The Institute of Medical Science, Dong-A University Hospital, College of Medicine, Pusan, Korea.
3Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul, Korea. kmyang@kcch.re.kr
In our previous study, we have shown the main cell death pattern induced by irradiation or protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors in K562 human myelogenous leukemic cell line. Death of the cells treated with irradiation alone was characterized by mitotic catastrophe and typical radiation-induced apoptosis was accelerated by herbimycin A (HMA). Both types of cell death were inhibited by genistein. In this study, we investigated the effects of HMA and genistein on cell cycle regulation and its correlation with the alterations of radiation-induced cell death.
K562 cells in exponential growth phase were used for this study. The cells were irradiated with 10 Gy using 6 MeV Linac (200-300 cGy/min). Immediately after irradiation, cells were treated with 250 nM of HMA or 25 microM of genistein. The distributions of cell cycle, the expressions of cell cycle-related protein, the activities of cyclin-dependent kinase, and the yield of senescence and differentiation were analyzed.
X-irradiated cells were arrested in the G2 phase of the cell cycle but unlike the p53-positive cells, they were not able to sustain the cell cycle arrest. An accumulation of cells in G2 phase of first cell-cycle post-treatment and an increase of cyclin B1 were correlated with spontaneous, premature, chromosome condensation and mitotic catastrophe. HMA induced rapid G2 checkpoint abrogation and concomitant p53-independent G1 accumulation. HMA-induced cell cycle modifications correlated with the increase of cdc2 kinase activity, the decrease of the expressions of cyclins E and A and of CDK2 kinase activity, and the enhancement of radiation-induced apoptosis. Genistein maintained cells that were arrested in the G2-phase, decreased the expressions of cyclin B1 and cdc25C and cdc2 kinase activity, increased the expression of p16, and sustained senescence and megakaryocytic differentiation.
The effects of HMA and genistein on the radiation-induced cell death of K562 cells were closely related to the cell cycle regulatory activities. In this study, we present a unique and reproducible model in which for investigating the mechanisms of various, radiation-induced, cancer cell death patterns. Further evaluation by using this model will provide a potent target for a new strategy of radiotherapy.
Key Words: Radiation-induced cell death, Cell cycle, Senescence, Differentiation, Herbimycin A, Genistein
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