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J Korean Soc Ther Radiol Oncol > Volume 21(3); 2003 > Article
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology 2003;21(3): 227-237.
Signal Transduction Factors on the Modulation of Radiosusceptibility in K562 Cells
Kwang Mo Yang, Seon Min Youn, Soo Jin Jeong, Ji Yeon Jang, Wol Soon Jo, Chang Ho Do, Yeo Jin Yoo, Young Cheol Shin, Hyung Sik Lee, Won Joo Hur, Young Jin Lim, Min Ho Jeong
1Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul, Korea.
2Department of Radiation Oncology, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.
3The Institute of Medical Science (BK21 program), Dong-A University Hospital, College of Medicine, Pusan, Korea. kmyang@kcch.re.kr
4Department of Radiation Oncology, Dong-A University Hospital, College of Medicine, Pusan, Korea.
ABSTRACT
PURPOSE:
The human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line, K562, expresses the chimeric bcr-abl oncoprotein, whose deregulated protein tyrosine kinase activity antagonizes the induction of apoptosis via DNA damaging agents. Previous experiments have shown that nanomolar concentrations of herbimycin A (HMA) coupled with X-irradiation have a synergistic effect in inducing apoptosis in the Ph-positive K562 leukemia cell line, but genistein, a PTK inhibitor, is non selective for the radiation-induced apoptosis of p210bcr/abl protected K562 cells. In these experiments, the cytoplasmic signal transduction pathways, the induction of a number of transcription factors and the differential gene expression in this model were investigated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
K562 cells in the exponential growth phase were used in this study. The cells were irradiated with 0.5-12 Gy, using a 6 MeV Linac (Clinac 1800, Varian, USA). Immediately after irradiation, the cells were treated with 0.25 microM of HMA and 25 microM of genistein, and the expressions and the activities of abl kinase, MAPK family, NF-kB, c-fos, c-myc, and thymidine kinase1 (TK1) were examined. The differential gene expressions induced by PTK inhibitors were also investigated.
RESULTS:
The modulating effects of herbimycin A and genistein on the radiosensitivity of K562 cells were not related to the bcr-abl kinase activity. The signaling responses through the MAPK family of proteins, were not involved either. In association with the radiation-induced apoptosis, which is accelerated by HMA, the expression of c-myc was increased. The combined treatment of genistein, with irradiation, enhanced NF-kB activity and the TK1 expression and activity.
CONCLUSION:
The effects of HMA and genistein on the radiosensitivity of the K562 cells were not related to the bcr-abl kinase activity. In this study, another signaling pathway, besides the MAPK family responses to radiation to K562 cells, was found. Further evaluation using this model will provide valuable information for the optional radiosensitization or radioprotection.
Key Words: Chronic myelogenous leukemia, K562 cell, Radiation-induced apoptosis, Herbimycin A, Genistein, Signal transduction
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