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J Korean Soc Ther Radiol Oncol > Volume 16(3); 1998 > Article
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology 1998;16(3): 291-301.
Once vs. Twice Daily Thoracic Irradiation in Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer
Jun Sang Kim, Jae Sung Kim, Ju Ock Kim, Sun Young Kim, Moon June Cho
1Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Taejon, Korea.
2Department of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Taejon, Korea.
ABSTRACT
PURPOSE:
A retrospective study was conducted comparing single daily fraction (SDF) thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) with twice daily (BID) TRT to determine the potential benefit of BID TRT in limited-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Endpoints of the study were response, survival, pattern of failure, and acute toxicity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Between November 1989 to December 1996, 78 patients with histologically proven limited-stage SCLC were treated at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital. Of these, 9 were irradiated for palliative intent, and 1 had recurrent disease. Remaining 68 patients were enrolled in this study. There were 26 patients with a median age of 58 years, and 22 (85%) ECOG performance score of less than 1 in SDF TRT. There were 42 patients with a median age of 57 years, and 36 (86%) ECOG performance score of less than 1 in BID RT. By radiation fractionation regimen, there were 26 in SDF TRT and 42 in BID TRT. SDF TRT consisted of 180 cGy, 5 days a week. BID TRT consisted of 150 cGy BID, 5 days a week in 13 of 42 and 120 cGy BID, in 29 of 42. And the twice daily fractions were separated by at least 4 hours. Total radiotherapy doses were between 5040 and 6940 cGy (median, 5040 cGy) in SDF TRT and was between 4320 and 5100 cGy (median, 4560 cGy) in BID TRT. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) was recommended for patients who achieved a CR. The recommended PCI dose was 2500 cGy/10 fractions. Chemotherapy consisted of CAV (cytoxan 1000 mg/m2, adriamycin 40 mg/m2, vincristine 1 mg/m2) alternating with VPP (cisplatin 60 mg/m2, etoposide 100 mg/m2) every 3 weeks in 25 (96%) of SDF TRT nd in 40 (95%) of BID TRT. Median cycle of chemotherapy was six in both group. Timing for chemotherapy was sequential in 23 of SDF TRT and in 3 BID TRT, and concurrent in 3 of SDF TRT and in 39 of BID TRT. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 99 months (median, 14 months) in both groups.
RESULTS:
Of the 26 SDF TRT, 9 (35%) achieved a complete response (CR) and 14 (54%) experienced a partial response (PR). Of the 42 BID TRT, 18 (43%) achieved a CR and 23 (55%) experienced a PR. There was no significant response difference between the two arms (p=0.119). Overall medianand 2-year survival were 15 months and 26.8%, respectively. The 2-year survivals were 26.9% and 28% in both arm, respectively (p=0.51). The 2-year survivals were 35% in CR and 24.2% in PR, respectively. The grade 2 to 3 esophageal toxicities and grade 2 to 4 neutropenias were more common in BID TRT (p=0.028, 0.003). There was no difference in locoregional and distant metastasis between the two arms (p=0.125 and 0.335, respectively). The most common site of distant metastasis was the brain.
CONCLUSION:
The median survival and 2-year survival were 17 months and 26.9% in SDF TRT with sequential chemotherapy, and 15 months and 28% in BID TRT with concurrent chemotherapy, respectively. We did not observe a substantial improvement of long-term survival in the BID TRT with concurrent chemotherapy compared with standard schedules of SDF TRT with sequential chemotherapy. The grade 2 to 3 esophageal toxicities and grade 2 to 4 neutropenias were more common in BID TRT with concurrent chemotherapy. Although the acute toxicities were more common in BID TRT with concurrent chemotherapy than SDF TRT with sequential chemotherapy, a concurrent chemotherapy and twice daily TRT was feasible. However further patient ccrual and long-term follow up are needed to determine the potential benefits of BID TRT in limited-stage SCLC.
Key Words: Limited stage, Small cell lung cancer, Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy, BID
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