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J Korean Soc Ther Radiol Oncol > Volume 16(3); 1998 > Article
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology 1998;16(3): 233-243.
Prenatal Deaths and External Malformations Caused by X-Irradiation during the Preimplantation Period of ddy Mice
Hee Jeong Ro, Ihl Bhong Choi, Yeun Wha Gu
1Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Marys Hospital, Catholic University Medical College, Seoul, Korea.
2Department of Radiological Technology Science, Suzuka University of Medical science and Technology, Suzuka, Japan.
To evaluate the effects of X-irradiation on prenatal deaths, i.e., preimplantation deaths, embryonic deaths, and fetal deaths, and on external malformations in precompacted preimplantation ddy mice.
Pregnant mice (n=85), obtained by limiting the mating time to from 6 to 9 A.M., were segregated into 11 groups. The first five groups (n=26) were irradiated with X-ray doses of 0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1.5, and 3 Gy, respectively, at 24 h post conception (p.c.) of the preimplantation period. The second five (n=27) groups were irradiated at the same X-ray doses, respectively, but at 48 h p.c. of the preimplantation period. The last group (n=32) was the control group. The uterine contents were examined on the 18th day of gestation for prenatal deaths and external malformations.
1) A statistically significant increase in preimplantation deaths with increasing dose was observed in the experimental groups irradiated at 24 h p.c. and in the groups irradiated at 48 h p.c., as compared to the control group. The threshold dose was close to 0.05 Gy and 0.075 Gy for the irradiations at 24 h p.c. and 48 h p.c. respectively.2) A statistically significant increase in embryonic deaths with increasing dose was observed in all irradiation groups, except the group irradiated with a dose of 0.1 Gy at 48 h p.c..3) No fetal deaths were found in any experimental group.4) In the experimental groups irradiated at 24 h p.c., anomalies increased with statistical significance, as compared with the control group: 2 exencephalies, 2 open eyelids, 3 anophthalmias, 2 cleft palates, 2 gastroschisis, 1abdominal wall defect, 1 leg defect, and 2 short tail anomalies; the threshold dose for external malformations was close to 0.2 Gy at 24 h p.c.. In the groups irradiated at 48 h p.c., 1 open eyelid and 2 short tail anomalies were observed, but there was no statistical significance in those malformations.
The results of this study reveal that X-irradiation of precompacted preimplantation ddy mice causes not only preimplantation deaths and embryonic deaths but also external malformations. In addition, external malformations were observed in our experiments at diagnostic doses, including 0.1 and 0.5 Gy. For this reason, we recommend that irradiation should be avoided during the preimplantation period by applying Rugh's 10-day rule.
Key Words: Irradiation, Preimplantation period, ddy mice, Prenatal death, External malformation
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