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J Korean Soc Ther Radiol Oncol > Volume 26(4); 2008 > Article
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology 2008;26(4): 237-246. doi: https://doi.org/10.3857/jkstro.2008.26.4.237
The Impact of Bladder Volume on Acute Urinary Toxicity during Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer
Jihae Lee, Hyun Suk Suh, Kyung Ja Lee, Rena Lee, Myungsoo Kim
Department of Radiation Oncology, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Korea. hyunssuh@ewha.ac.kr
Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were found to reduce the incidence of acute and late rectal toxicity compared with conventional radiation therapy (RT), although acute and late urinary toxicities were not reduced significantly. Acute urinary toxicity, even at a low-grade, not only has an impact on a patient's quality of life, but also can be used as a predictor for chronic urinary toxicity. With bladder filling, part of the bladder moves away from the radiation field, resulting in a small irradiated bladder volume; hence, urinary toxicity can be decreased. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of bladder volume on acute urinary toxicity during RT in patients with prostate cancer.
Forty two patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were treated by 3DCRT and of these, 21 patients made up a control group treated without any instruction to control the bladder volume. The remaining 21 patients in the experimental group were treated with a full bladder after drinking 450 mL of water an hour before treatment. We measured the bladder volume by CT and ultrasound at simulation to validate the accuracy of ultrasound. During the treatment period, we measured bladder volume weekly by ultrasound, for the experimental group, to evaluate the variation of the bladder volume.
A significant correlation between the bladder volume measured by CT and ultrasound was observed. The bladder volume in the experimental group varied with each patient despite drinking the same amount of water. Although weekly variations of the bladder volume were very high, larger initial CT volumes were associated with larger mean weekly bladder volumes. The mean bladder volume was 299+/-155 mL in the experimental group, as opposed to 187+/-155 mL in the control group. Patients in experimental group experienced less acute urinary toxicities than in control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. A trend of reduced toxicity was observed with the increase of CT bladder volume. In patients with bladder volumes greater than 150 mL at simulation, toxicity rates of all grades were significantly lower than in patients with bladder volume less than 150 mL. Also, patients with a mean bladder volume larger than 100 mL during treatment showed a slightly reduced Grade 1 urinary toxicity rate compared to patients with a mean bladder volume smaller than 100 mL.
Despite the large variability in bladder volume during the treatment period, treating patients with a full bladder reduced acute urinary toxicities in patients with prostate cancer. We recommend that patients with prostate cancer undergo treatment with a full bladder.
Key Words: Prostate cancer, Radiation therapy, Bladder volume, Urinary toxicity
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