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J Korean Soc Ther Radiol Oncol > Volume 22(4); 2004 > Article
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology 2004;22(4): 237-246.
Radiation Dose-escalation Trial for Glioblastomas with 3D-conformal Radiotherapy
Jae Ho Cho, Chang Geol Lee, Kyoung Ju Kim, Jino Bak, Se Byeoung Lee, Sam Ju Cho, Su Jung Shim, Dok Hyun Yoon, Hee Jong Chang, Tae Gon Kim, Dong Suk Kim, Chang Ok Suh
1Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. cosuh317@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr
2Departments of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
3Departments of Neurosurgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
To investigate the effects of radiation dose-escalation on the treatment outcome, complications and the other prognostic variables for glioblastoma patients treated with 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT).
Between Jan 1997 and July 2002, a total of 75 patients with histologically proven diagnosis of glioblastoma were analyzed. The patients who had a Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) of 60 or higher, and received at least 50 Gy of radiation to the tumor bed were eligible. All the patients were divided into two arms; Arm 1, the high-dose group was enrolled prospectively, and Arm 2, the low-dose group served as a retrospective control. Arm 1 patients received 63~70 Gy (Median 66 Gy, fraction size 1.8~2 Gy) with 3D-conformal radiotherapy, and Arm 2 received 59.4 Gy or less (Median 59.4 Gy, fraction size 1.8 Gy) with 2D-conventional radiotherapy. The Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) was defined by the surgical margin and the residual gross tumor on a contrast enhanced MRI. Surrounding edema was not included in the Clinical Target Volume (CTV) in Arm 1, so as to reduce the risk of late radiation associated complications; whereas as in Arm 2 it was included. The overall survival and progression free survival times were calculated from the date of surgery using the Kaplan-Meier method. The time to progression was measured with serial neurologic examinations and MRI or CT scans after RT completion. Acute and late toxicities were evaluated using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group neurotoxicity scores.
During the relatively short follow up period of 14 months, the median overall survival and progression free survival times were 15+/-1.65 and 11+/-0.95 months, respectively. There was a significantly longer survival time for the Arm 1 patients compared to those in Arm 2 (p=0.028). For Arm 1 patients, the median survival and progression free survival times were 21+/-5.03 and 12+/-1.59 months, respectively, while for Arm 2 patients they were 14+/-0.94 and 10+/-1.63 months, respectively. Especially in terms of the 2-year survival rate, the high-dose group showed a much better survival time than the low-dose group; 44.7% versus 19.2%. Upon univariate analyses, age, performance status, location of tumor, extent of surgery, tumor volume and radiation dose group were significant factors for survival. Multivariate analyses confirmed that the impact of radiation dose on survival was independent of age, performance status, extent of surgery and target volume. During the follow-up period, complications related directly with radiation, such as radionecrosis, has not been identified.
Using 3D-conformal radiotherapy, which is able to reduce the radiation dose to normal tissues compared to 2D-conventional treatment, up to 70 Gy of radiation could be delivered to the GTV without significant toxicity. As an approach to intensify local treatment, the radiation dose escalation through 3D-CRT can be expected to increase the overall and progression free survival times for patients with glioblastomas.
Key Words: Glioblastoma, 3D-CRT, Dose escalation, Target volume
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